Any serious crisis in iran could jeopardize the clergys favored position in government. Legac y of a rev olution what is the legacy of iran s islamic revolution and how does it affect iranian society more than three decades later. The public remarks of iranian leaders indicate that tehran has been consistently committed to spreading its ideology beyond iran s borders since 1979. The iranian revolution opened a new chapter in the history of mass popular revolutions in the world. Doctor of philosophy history in the university of michigan. The rise and fall of the iranian revolution of 1979. Iran relations since the islamic revolution that overthrew the prou. The revolution of february 1979 was a revolt of the society against the state. A pledge to exporting the revolution is enshrined in iran s constitution. Kayhan barzegar argues that balance of security is based on a non. Following the success of the revolution, the islamists instituted a theocratic dictatorship and wiped out the workers movement and the left. The iranian revolution of 1979 was many years in the making.
It subsequently became the largest among the nationwide uprisings in iran against the new state and one of the most intense kurdish rebellions in modern iran. The two countries enjoyed good relations for 30 years, but since the islamic revolution of 1979, israel and iran have been a study in enmity despite not sharing a border or having any territorial disputes. Since 1979, iran s theocratic regime has deprived the entire clerical class of its autonomybut also made it rich and powerful. Iranian revolution, also called islamic revolution, persian enqelabe eslami, popular uprising in iran in 197879 that resulted in the toppling of the monarchy on february 11, 1979, and led to the establishment of an islamic republic. Explain why iran s revolution came as a shock to the u.
The revolution and the iranian revolution 2172 words 9 pages. The iranian revolution at 30 middle east institute. The iranian revolution past, present and future brought the safavids into direct conflict with the ottoman empire and led to two centuries of intermittent warfare between those two powerful states. The iranian revolution of 1979 was a pivotal moment in revolutionary history. Photos taken in iran before the 1979 islamic revolution, which saw the ousting of king shah mohammad reza pahlavi, show what the vibrant iranian life was like in the 60s and 70s.
Each special issue of viewpoints will combine the diverse commentaries of policymakers and. By roger cohen tehran, iran s capital, was in a state of revolt on jan. This outcome contrasts sharply with other modern revolutionary movements, which have been fought in the name of nationalism or socialism and which have concluded. This dissertation will analyze and contend that the islamic republic of iran after the 1979 revolution can provide stability in the gulf region. The year that shaped the modern middle east new york. Its lessons for today kamran nayeri and alireza nasab achievements the february 1979 iranian revolution was the largest urban mass uprising since the 1917 russian revolution. This concise but informative history chronicles how the iranian revolution of 1979 transformed iran from a monarchy to a fundamentalist islamic republic.
From october of 1977 to february of 1979, the people of iran called for the end of the monarchy but they didnt necessarily agree on what should replace it. In midfebruary, there was an insurrection, with air force cadets joining. The iranian revolution and its legacy of terrorism lawfare. The 21 and 22 of bahman 57 12 and february 1979 were the days of the collapse of the monarchic system when domestic tyranny, and the foreign dominance that relied on it, were crushed. The rise and fall of the iranian revolution of 1979 nodo50. Iran s islamic revolution after the overthrow of the shah, an american ally became one of its biggest adversaries.
In january of 1979, the shah and his family fled iran on what was officially described as a vacation. The iranian revolution of february 1979, by homa katouzian. Emphasizing the interaction between political organizations and social forces, ervand abrahamian discusses iranian society and politics during the period between the constitutional revolution of 19051909 and the islamic revolution of 1977 1979. The shah, iran s ruler for nearly four decades, had fled the country. The 1979 kurdish rebellion in iran erupted in midmarch 1979, some two months after the completion of the iranian revolution. In simple terms, the regime of muhammad reza shah pahlavi was overthrown by a coalition of opposition forces dominated by shii muslim fundamentalists.
Panelists reflect on the events that unfolded during the iranian revolution in 1979, how the united states responded, and the consequences for today. Iran before the 1979 revolution revealed in photographs. Its the council, so i know we have to start right on time, or else we get demerits. A multiclass opposition overthrew an autocratic ruler, leading to the establishment of a theocratic state. Iran and israel steven simon israel and iran have interacted since israels birth in 1948. The knot of history, which was broken after 1979, has once. Presented here is a study of the emergence of horizontal divisions, or socioeconomic classes, in a country with strong vertical divisions based on. Iran is as committed to exporting the islamic revolution today as it was in 1979. The iranian revolution a history and analysis of the revolution in which socialists aligned themselves with islamists to overthrow the westbacked shah. Iranian revolution the iranian revolution is considered the 3rd greatest revolution in history. Pdf the iranian revolution at 30 roschanack shaery. The 1979 iranian revolution council on foreign relations. The ripple effect of irans revolution across the middle east 14. The iranian revolution of 19781979 violently e nded the monarchy of shah mohammed reza pahlavi 19191980 and replaced it with an islamic republic, the theocracy of ayatollah ruhollah.
The islamic revolution marked a clear turning point in the history of the modern middle east. The government of iran played a primary role in converting conventional banking into islamic banking after 1979 revolution. The 1979 iranian revolution was a major landmark in iranian history. The 1979 islamic revolution in iran has proved one of the most consequential events in the history of modern terrorism.
Brief background information explains the underpinnings of the revolution and basic facts about islam. Iran s revolution began with a popular democracy movement and ended with the establishment of the world s first islamic state. Chapter 2 focuses on the social, political and economic status of iran, pre and post revolution. It changed that strategic relation of forces in the middle east to the detriment of imperialism. On a domestic level, iran s political, economic, and cultural independence from foreign powers was a key factor that united the different factions against the monarchy. The 21 and 22 of bahman 57 12 and february 1979 were the days of the collapse of the monarchic system when domestic tyranny, and the foreign dominance that relied on it, were. And the end goal of the revolution was never a state, it was the expansion of the revolution. Although ideology has played a role, their respective regional strategic interests have largely shaped their relationship. It marked the latest chapter in a decadeslong battle between the u. Key points for the first two to three decades after the 1979 islamic revolution, the iranian led axis of resistance was little more than rhetoric, ascribing greater unity of effort to an. Religious elements of the 1979 islamic revolution amazon s3. Iran is an important test case firstly because until the revolution, iran was one of three. The iranian state is there to serve the revolution, not the other way around.
Relations between the two countries were relatively close until the 1979 revolution. The organs of the iranian state serve the revolution, not the other way around. After the triumph of the february revolution, mehdi bazargan, another national front leader who had merge nationalist and islamic sentiments. The safavid dynasty ruled iran until 1722, when an afghan army invaded the country and captured isfahan. In some of its basic characteristics, the revolution did not conform to the usual norms of western revolutions, because the state did not represent just an ordinary dictatorship but an absolute and arbitrary system that lacked political legitimacy and a social base virtually across the whole of the society. That battle began 35 years ago with iran s revolution in 1979. The iranian revolution of february 1979 middle east. In the iranian revolution of 1979, ayatollah sayyid ruhollah musavi khomeini ousted mohammad reza pahlavi, who succeeded his father as shah of iran in the early 1950s. Reza shah, the elder pahlavi, came to power during the 1920s after promoting the idea of. This case study investigates the social, economic, and political dynamics of. The revolution led to a surge in iranianbacked terrorism that continues, albeit in quite different forms, to this day.
The newsmagazine for teens tehran, iran s capital, was in a state of revolt on jan. Iran, may 2008 3 in november 1979, students affiliated with the latter group occupied the u. To retain its legitimacy and religious standing, the clergy may have to distance itself from politics. The iranian revolution there are various parties that have different viewpoints and opinions of the revolution. On february 9th, 1979, million of iranians came on to the streets of teheran to welcome the return of the religious leader ayatollah.
Library of congress federal research division country profile. Ideology, politics, and the development of military power in iran 1979 2009 by. Historical context the 1979 islamic revolution changed iran s modern political and economic history. At the first signs of escalating unrest in early 1978, neither iranian nor u. Religious elements of the 1979 islamic revolution september 30, 20 this case study investigates the social, economic, and political dynamics of 1970s iran that led the iranian people to accept, and then maintain, religion as the basis of a new political system after deposing mohammad reza shah pahlavi in 1979. Answer the following questions as you read the article. The iranian revolution also known as the islamic revolution or the 1979 revolution, was a.
Middleclass iranians, leftist university students, and islamist supporters of ayatollah khomeini united to demand the overthrow of shah mohammad reza pahlavi. In 1983, the law of usuryfree banking was passed, and in 1984, interest free banks started to implement islamic banking based on the 1983 law. Supreme leaders legacy debated 30 years after his death. Each special issue of viewpoints will combine the diverse commentaries of.15 893 1545 21 1582 469 545 189 930 165 50 242 1020 1300 1024 1489 830 1265 1191 1263 269 758 1147 403 1042 617 1214 147 1404